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Sunday, June 6, 2010

Cattle Plague; China, Tibet

On Sun, Jun 6, 2010 at 6:07 PM, ProMED-mail wrote:

PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS, SHEEP & GOAT - CHINA: (TIBET), OIE
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International Society for Infectious Diseases


Date: 4 Jun 2010
Source: OIE WAHID Disease Information 2010; 23(22) [edited]



Peste des petits ruminants, China (People's Rep. of)
--------------------------------
Information received on 2 Jun 2010 from Dr Zhang Zhongqui, Deputy
Director General, China Animal Disease Control Centre, Veterinary
Bureau, Beijing, China (People's Rep. of)

Summary
Report type: Immediate notification
Start date 14 May 2010
Date of 1st confirmation of the event 1 Jun 2010
Report date 2 Jun 2010
Date submitted to OIE 2 Jun 2010
Reason for notification: Reoccurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence 11 Dec 2008
Manifestation of disease: Clinical disease
Causal agent: Peste des petits ruminants virus
Nature of diagnosis: Clinical, Laboratory (basic), Laboratory (advanced)
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country

New outbreaks
Outbreak 1 Wujiang, Ritu, Ali, TIBET
Date of start of the outbreak 14 May 2010
Outbreak status: Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
Epidemiological unit: Village
Species Sheep / goats
Susceptible 1163
Cases 133
Deaths 69
Destroyed 1094
Slaughtered 0

Epidemiology
Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection - Unknown or inconclusive

Control measures - Measures applied. Stamping out; Movement control
inside the country; Screening; Zoning; No vaccination; No treatment
of affected animals.

Measures to be applied - No other measures

Laboratory name and type: National Exotic Animal Disease Diagnostic
Centre (China Animal Health and Epidemiology Centre) (National
laboratory)

Tests and results
Species Sheep / goats
Test gene sequencing
Test date 1 Jun 2010
Result Positive

Species Sheep / goats
Test goats polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
Test date 1 Jun 2010
Result Positive

Species Sheep / goats
Test goats virus isolation
Test date 1 Jun 2010
Result Positive

Future Reporting
The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted

--
Communicated by:
ProMED-mail

[Tibet is currently fighting a serious outbreak of foot and mouth
disease in addition to trying to control this fairly high mortality
disease (case fatality rate is just over 50 percent). Let's hope that
the PPR event is well controlled as happened in 2007 and 2008 rather
than being the more explosive event that we have seen in other
countries in the region. It is important to remember that mortality
with PPR can vary from inconsequential to severe.

As mentioned, PPR is a problem in the region with Afghanistan, India,
Iran and Nepal reporting hundreds of cases in various years to OIE
WAHID since 2005. Other countries have reported less severe
outbreaks. Tibet reported 4 cases in 2007 and one case in 2008.

For further details of clinical and epidemiologic presentation of
PPR, I suggest our readers peruse Mod.AS's comments in Peste des
petits ruminants - China (Tibet): OIE 20070727.2419, which I have
copied below.

This commentary calls attention to Dr Adama Diallo's analysis of,
among other things, the distribution of various PPRV lineages and
their geographic distribution throughout Africa, the Middle East and
Asia. - Mod.PC]

[Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), also called Kata (a vernacular
west-African name), pseudorinderpest, and stomatitis-pneumoenteritis
complex, is an acute contagious disease of small ruminants. Goats and
sheep are the species primarily affected, with highest pathogenicity
in goats. PPR is caused by a paramyxovirus of the genus
_Morbillivirus_. It is antigenically very similar to the rinderpest
virus. (Rinderpest was one of more than a dozen agents that the United States researched as potential biological weapons before the nation suspended its biological weapons program; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_weapon
)

Clinical signs are similar to rinderpest in cattle and the 2
organisms are closely related. Clinical signs may include fever,
necrotic stomatitis, gastroenteritis, and bronchopneumonia.

Cattle and pigs can be infected, but show no clinical signs and do
not transmit the disease to other animals. PPR has also been reported
in a few wild ungulates and the American white-tailed deer is
susceptible when experimentally infected. PPR does not infect man.

The disease occurs in Africa, the Middle East, and the Indian
subcontinent. Outbreaks are known to be common in India, Nepal,
Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. The identification in Tibet,
adjacent to the Indian border (see map provided in the source URL),
should not be surprising. The Chinese decision to apply vaccination
is possibly indicative of their view that the disease has not been
eradicated by the culling of the affected goat flock, but has
possibly got a foothold in Tibet, or even in other parts of China.
Details on the vaccine used (locally produced?) will be helpful.

The following text, extracted from a commentary sent to ProMED-mail
in 1998 (archived 19981012.2007) by one of the world's leading
experts on PPR, Dr Adama Diallo, still maintains its actuality and
deserves attention:

"PPR can be overlooked officially (for economic reasons) but is quite
easy to diagnose clinically. This is true for people who are aware of
the disease. Any PPR diagnosis based on clinical signs should be
considered as provisional until a laboratory test confirmation.
Clinically, PPR could be confused with rinderpest, contagious caprine
pleuropneumonia, and pasteurellosis (this latter coexisting with PPRV
infection in almost all acute cases).

Considered for a long time as a disease of West African countries,
PPR is now widespread in Africa in an area lying between Sahara and
Equator, in the Middle East, and in Southwest Asia. The fact that a
rinderpest-like disease was occurring in small ruminants population
in countries where bovine rinderpest was eradicated and the advent of
specific diagnostic tests, have allowed to build up more information
about PPR. The fact that our knowledge on this disease has progressed
eastwards from West Africa to Asia doesn't mean at all that the
diffusion of the virus has been in that direction: apart from the
situation in the Middle East, the animal trade routes and the
geographical distribution of the different PPRV lineages are not
correlating with the direction by which the information has grown.

"Indeed, in Cirad-emvt (Montpellier, France), an OIE Reference
Laboratory for PPR, we have a rich collection of PPRV strains
collected from Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The data we have
got from partial sequencing of NP gene of those PPRV strains (and of
cDNA amplified from different PPR pathological samples sent to us)
have allowed us to define 4 main PPRV lineages: 3 being in Africa.
Both lineage III (a lineage found in East Africa) and lineage IV
(Asian lineage) are coexisting in the Middle East, a finding that can
be expected according to the animal trade routes.

"The mortality of PPR is very variable (from 0 percent to 90 percent,
subclinical infection occurring very frequently). In some outbreaks
in Africa, the rate of mortality is not exceeding 20 percent
sometimes. Animal species, animal breeds and maybe the climate are
important factors in the severity of the PPR outbreaks".

It will be interesting to note if the high apparent case fatality
rate in the current outbreak in Tibet (greater than 70 percent) is
indicative of breed susceptibility or related to climate/husbandry
conditions. - Mod.AS]

[see also:
Foot & mouth disease - China (07): (Tibet), porcine, serotype O 20100531.1816
2008
----
Peste des petits ruminants - China (02): (Tibet), OIE 20080713.2134
2007
----
Peste des petits ruminants - China (Tibet): OIE 20070727.2419
Peste des petits ruminants - Nepal: suspected, RFI 20070423.1324
1998
----
Peste des petits ruminants: origin & distribution (02) 19981012.2007]
.........................................sb/pc/msp/lm

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