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Friday, May 21, 2010


A ProMED-mail post

ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases

Date: Thu 20 May 2010
Source: OIE, WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database), weekly
disease information 2010; 23(20) [edited]

Equine rhinopneumonitis, United Arab Emirates
Information received on (and dated) 20 May 2010 from Eng Sumaia Al
Rais, Head of Animal and Plant Health, Animal and Plant Health
Department, Ministry of Environment and Water, Dubai, United Arab Emirates

Report type: immediate notification (final report)
Start date: 28 Mar 2010
Date of first confirmation of the event: 7 Apr 2010
Report date: 20 May 2010
Date submitted to OIE: 20 May 2010
Date event resolved: 28 Mar 2010
Reason for notification: reoccurrence of a listed disease
Date of previous occurrence: 2000
Manifestation of disease: clinical disease
Causal agent: Equid herpesvirus-1
Nature of diagnosis: suspicion, clinical, laboratory (basic)
This event pertains to a defined zone within the country

New outbreaks
Summary of outbreaks
Total outbreaks: 1
Location: AlQuoz, Dubai, Dubai, Dubayy
Date of start of the outbreak: 28 Mar 2010
Outbreak status: resolved (28 Mar 2010)
Epidemiological unit: farm
Species: Equidae
Susceptible: 3
Cases: 1
Deaths: 1
Destroyed: 0
Slaughtered: 0

Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection: unknown or inconclusive
Epidemiological comments: an abortion in an Arabian breeding stock
was reported on 28 Mar 2010. The mare foaled one week earlier with
premature placental separation. The foal was born alive but died
within a few minutes without the lungs inflating. The virus was
isolated from placenta, liver, spleen, lung, and tonsil. The mare had
been vaccinated at 5, 7, and 9 months of gestation.

Control measures
Measures applied: no vaccination; no treatment of affected animals
Measures to be applied: no other measures

Diagnostic test results
Laboratory name and type: Central Veterinary Research Laboratory,
Dubai (national laboratory)
Species: Equidae
Test: indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test
Test date: 7 Apr 2010
Result: positive

Species: Equidae
Test: virus isolation
Test date: 7 Apr 2010
Result: positive

Future reporting
The event is resolved. No more reports will be submitted.

Communicated by:

[The following summary is from the OIE Terrestrial Manual 2008.

Equine rhinopneumonitis (ER) is a collective term for any one of
several highly contagious, clinical disease entities of equids that
may occur as a result of infection by either of 2 closely related
herpesviruses, equid herpesvirus-1 and -4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4).
Infection by either EHV-1 or EHV-4 is characterised by a primary
respiratory tract disease of varying severity that is related to the
age and immunological status of the infected animal. Infections by
EHV-1 in particular are capable of progression beyond the respiratory
mucosa to cause the more serious disease manifestations of abortion,
perinatal foal death, or neurological dysfunction.

ER is highly contagious among susceptible horses, with viral
transmission to cohort animals occurring by inhalation of aerosols of
virus-laden respiratory secretions. Extensive use of vaccines has not
eliminated EHV infections, and the worldwide annual financial burden
from these equine pathogens is immense.

In horses under 3 years of age, clinical ER usually takes the form of
an acute, febrile respiratory illness that spreads rapidly through
the group of animals. The viruses infect and multiply in epithelial
cells of the respiratory mucosa. Signs of infection become apparent
2-8 days after exposure to virus, and are characterised by fever,
inappetence, depression, and nasal discharge. The severity of
respiratory disease varies with the age of the horse and the level of
immunity resulting from previous vaccination or natural exposure.
Subclinical infections with EHV-1/4 are common, even in young
animals. Although mortality from uncomplicated ER is rare and
complete recovery within 1-2 weeks is the normal pattern, the
respiratory infection is a frequent and significant cause of
interrupted schedules among horses assembled for training, racing, or
competitive equestrian events. Fully protective immunity resulting
from infection is of short duration, and convalescent animals are
susceptible to reinfection by EHV-1/4 after several months. Although
reinfections by the 2 herpesviruses cause less severe or clinically
inapparent respiratory disease, the risks of subsequent abortion
and/or central nervous system (CNS) disease are not eliminated. The
greatest clinical threats to individual breeding, racing, or pleasure
horse operations posed by ER are the potential abortigenic and
neurological sequelae of EHV-1 respiratory infection.

For further information please see
Also, Dr. Luce's comments on terminology in ProMED-mail Equine
herpesvirus - USA (MI) (02) 20041221.3364 are educational. - Mod.PC]

[AlQuoz is located in western Dubai. The HealthMap/ProMED-mail
interactive map of the United Arab Emirates is available at
. - Sr.Tech.Ed.MJ]

[see also:
Equine rhinopneumonitis - Israel: OIE 20050803.2258
Equine herpesvirus - USA (MI)(02) 20041221.3364
Equine herpesvirus - USA (MI) 20041219.3349
Equine herpesvirus type 1 - USA (MD) 20040709.1843
Equine herpesvirus type 1, diagnosis (02) 20031110.2785
Equine herpesvirus type 1 - UK (02) 20030412.0894
Equine herpesvirus type 1 - UK 20030323.0719
Equine herpesvirus - USA (KY) (02) 20030320.0697
Equine herpesvirus - USA (Ohio): suspected (02) 20030124.0218]

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